Different types of sensors in a car and its functions/Rolls short description
1. Temperature sensor
- It is a sensor that can monitor the temperature of the engine.
- Thermal management is crucial for the smooth running of a vehicle. Hence, it is one of the critical sensors in a car.
- The sensor is also responsible for the efficient functioning of the cooling system.
- The sensor can also help to warn the diver if the engine is running low on coolant or if the radiator is not working correctly.
2. NOx sensor
- The NOx sensor monitors the Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) present in the exhaust gases.
- There are strict laws in respect to the permissible levels of NOx emission from a vehicle.
- Hence, the NOx sensor is essential to monitor the emission of harmful gases.
- The sensor will relay the information to the ECU, which then makes adjustments to the air-fuel mixture to achieve the required NOx levels.
3. Oxygen sensor
- As the name suggests, the oxygen or O2 sensor measures the amount of oxygen present in the exhaust gases.
- Generally, the O2 sensor is located near the exhaust manifold and after the catalytic convertor.
- The sensor helps determine whether the engine is burning a rich or lean air-fuel mixture.
- A faulty oxygen sensor can cause high fuel consumption, jerkiness or a problem with idling speed.
4. Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor
- It is a sensor that monitors the engine load.
- It calculates the difference between the manifold and outside pressure.
- The MAP sensor ensures that the engine relieves fuel based on the change in pressure.
- The failure of the MAP sensor may result in high fuel consumption.
5. Throttle position sensor
- It measures the position of the throttle valve when you press the accelerator pedal.
- The sensor sends the information to the ECU, which then decides how much air-fuel mixture needs to be sent to the cylinder.
- A faulty throttle position sensor hampers the power delivery.
6. Voltage sensor
- The voltage sensor is responsible for managing the vehicle’s idling speed.
- The sensor also ensures that idling speed is decreased or increased when required.
7. Speed sensor
- As the name suggests, it monitors the speed of the car’s wheels.
- A car’s wheels can travel at different speeds when going around a corner or while off-roading.
- Hence, the speed sensor helps to track the speed of each wheel.
- The data is sent to the ECU, and it can be utilised by safety features such as traction control, ABS (Anti-Lock Braking System).
- The speed sensor is crucial, especially for 4×4 vehicles.